Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Rhetoric Non Est Ars Quae Ad Effectum Casu Venit free essay sample

A character analysis of Creon in the play Oedipus the king and a comparison of Aristotles Rhetoric and Creons persuasive speech to Oedipus. This paper offers a character analysis of Creon in the play Oedipus the King, with an emphasis on human nature. One aspect of human nature that is explored is what Aristotle referred to as the art of rhetoric. The papers main focus is Creons use of the art of persuasion. The paper uses Aristotles Rhetoric as the basis for the analysis, and as a secondary source. Sometimes persuasion is only glorified manipulation, and other times persuasion is truly the heartfelt sentiment of the speaker. Either way, in the eyes of the Greek philosophers persuasion is form of art. While Creon defends himself from the accusations of Oedipus he taints his words with succulent messages of pathos, logos and ethos When comparing Creons speech to Aristotles guidelines for successful rhetoric we can see that Creon speaks in a manor that renders him worthy of confidence (17). We will write a custom essay sample on Rhetoric: Non Est Ars Quae Ad Effectum Casu Venit or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page

Thursday, November 28, 2019

The Concept of Organizational Commitment in Human Resource Management

Table of Contents Introduction Summary of the background to the topic Discuss Job Turnover Recommendations and conclusion Reference List Introduction There are several factors which influence outcomes in the organization. They range from the financial status of the organization, the business strategies applied by management as well as the environment within which the organization is operating. However it is also true that the performance of the organization is largely attributed to the ability of the employees to effectively undertake their roles.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Concept of Organizational Commitment in Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This brings up issues relating to organizational commitment. Organizational commitment can be defined as the bond which ties the employee to the organization. Ultimately, organizational commitment has a direct effect on organization al behavior (Porter, 1976, p90). Summary of the background to the topic The most critical areas influenced by organizational commitment among employees include the behavior and performance of the employees; attitudes and other cognitive constructs affecting job satisfaction; responsibility and finally personal traits such as age. The centrality of this issue in determining organizational outcomes has greatly boosted the concept of organizational commitment in human resource management. This is in line with the fact that human resources management policies must be designed with the aim of ensuring that there is maximum commitment of employees (Porter, 1974, p605). This commitment is seen in terms of the royalty and attachment employees have towards the organization. It is what gives them the will to always go the extra mile in doing that which benefits organization. At the height of it, employees have been found to fully place the interest of the organization well ahead of their own (Niehoff, 1990, p340). Discuss Job Turnover One important benefit of organizational commitment is reduction in job turnover. Whenever employees feel detached from the organization, issues of job dissatisfaction tend to increase meaning that more employees are willing to leave the organization. A high employee turnover in an organization can be disastrous. First it significantly pushes up the recruitment costs which have a direct impact financial impact on the organization. Secondly, the high turnover implies that the more investments in training new recruits will be incurred. These new employees are not only likely to take time adjusting in the system but are more likely to make mistakes in executing their tasks. In this respect then, it is crucial that organizational commitment among employees is achieved as this minimizes the job turnover and consequently reduces these inefficiencies in the organization (O’Reilly, 1986, p495).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Recommendations and conclusion There are several policy issues for consideration towards inculcating organizational commitment among employees. First is the unrivalled fact that for employees to remain royal and committed in an organization, they must be made to feel valued and appropriately recognized. This cuts across several issues but most important is the decision making process. When fully involved in the decision making process, they not only better understand what is expected but also tend to own these decisions giving them the zeal to ensure that they succeed. Again, when these decisions bear fruit a great sense of accomplishment is experienced among employees. Secondly, there should be good communication and feedback channels in the organization. Employees should always have channels which they can use in communicating their concerns as well as views to the management. This give s them confidence that they will be heard. In addition, feedback is crucial because if communicated effectively, it encourages employees to strive to achieve even better results (Perry, 1997, p190). In conclusion, the value of organizational commitment is the hallmark of efficient service delivery by employees. In today’s corporate world characterized by stiff competition, the organization with the most committed employees is likely to have better outcomes. However, it is a double win as employees who are better committed tend to be happier with their jobs resulting in a better society. Reference List Niehoff, B.P., Enz, C.A., Grover, R.A. (1990) .The impact of top-management actions on employee attitudes and perceptions. Group Organization Studies, 15, 3, 337- 352. O’Reilly, III, C., and Chatman, J. (1986). â€Å"Organizational Commitment and Psychological Attachment: The Effects of Compliance, Identification and Internalization on Prosocial Behavior†. Journa l of Applied Psychology, 71, 3, 492-499. Perry, J. (1997). â€Å"Antecedents of Public Service Motivation†. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 7, 2, 181-197.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on The Concept of Organizational Commitment in Human Resource Management specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Porter, L.W., Crampon, W. Smith, F. (1976). Organizational commitment and managerial turnover: A longitudinal study. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 15, 87-98 Porter, L.W.; Steers, R.M.; Mowday, R.T.; Boulian, P.V. (1974) Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1974, 59, 603-609. This report on The Concept of Organizational Commitment in Human Resource Management was written and submitted by user Kayl1e to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Brain Influence

Brain Influence I. Introduction. In choosing this book I discovered many interesting elements that caught my attention. Primarily it was the idea that this book â€Å"Your Brain at Work,† by Dr. Margaret A. Golton set the stage by addressing the psychological and mechanical processes the brain controls, by which personality and characters are formed. Secondly, I choose this book because I presumed discovering a clearer understanding about the self, mind, and its structure, content and function as it pertains to my psychological development. II. Summary. From the beginning of the book the author governs her thoughts and explanations consistently with the idea of the BONN approach as it relates to the development and dynamics of the brain. What is unique about the BONN approach to psychological development is that its not concerned with the past history, or special environment, but rather emphasizes the life experience for being the main contributor and common denominator to psychological development. First, the author begins addressing the brain and its organizational profile. With a very concise methodology Golton describes the dimensions of the brain and how the separate are inter-connected. She mentions that the brain has a core which, Lee Morton calls the â€Å"homunculus,† even though many psychologists, biologists, and scientists all together often call this aspect of the brain the â€Å"prenucleus.† Golton states, â€Å"that the prenucleus† transcends the historical idea of the brain and is of tremendous importance as it contributes to brain functioning† . It is the decision-making element of the mind, which has tremendous impact on the morals, precedence, and ambitions that govern a person’s life. For this is the platform where the author pronounces her ideas and facts in determining how the human personality is developed, and how the mysteries of brain activity and its intricacies is the sole reasoning for why e... Free Essays on Brain Influence Free Essays on Brain Influence Brain Influence I. Introduction. In choosing this book I discovered many interesting elements that caught my attention. Primarily it was the idea that this book â€Å"Your Brain at Work,† by Dr. Margaret A. Golton set the stage by addressing the psychological and mechanical processes the brain controls, by which personality and characters are formed. Secondly, I choose this book because I presumed discovering a clearer understanding about the self, mind, and its structure, content and function as it pertains to my psychological development. II. Summary. From the beginning of the book the author governs her thoughts and explanations consistently with the idea of the BONN approach as it relates to the development and dynamics of the brain. What is unique about the BONN approach to psychological development is that its not concerned with the past history, or special environment, but rather emphasizes the life experience for being the main contributor and common denominator to psychological development. First, the author begins addressing the brain and its organizational profile. With a very concise methodology Golton describes the dimensions of the brain and how the separate are inter-connected. She mentions that the brain has a core which, Lee Morton calls the â€Å"homunculus,† even though many psychologists, biologists, and scientists all together often call this aspect of the brain the â€Å"prenucleus.† Golton states, â€Å"that the prenucleus† transcends the historical idea of the brain and is of tremendous importance as it contributes to brain functioning† . It is the decision-making element of the mind, which has tremendous impact on the morals, precedence, and ambitions that govern a person’s life. For this is the platform where the author pronounces her ideas and facts in determining how the human personality is developed, and how the mysteries of brain activity and its intricacies is the sole reasoning for why e...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Expensive weddings are an obscene waste of money Essay - 1

Expensive weddings are an obscene waste of money - Essay Example For instance, when a couple plans for an expensive wedding, they consider inviting prominent and wealthy guests whether they personally know them or not. The common notion about this perception is the value of gifts couples would receive from the guests. With such inclinations, evidently, there is a moral looseness that expensive weddings bring about. The focus is now on the wedding gifts rather than the celebration time together with friends and family. Moreover, couples tend to concentrate on how perfect the ceremony should proceed so that they spend a lot on clothes, make-up and other fancy things that will make the wedding flawless. As a result, the essence of the wedding ceremony becomes a secondary or even the last concern of the people involved. On the other hand, if a wedding ceremony is planned to be simple and private, concerns about how the wedding will take place would be minimized and the wedding becomes more

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Compare and contrast at least Three theoretical perspectives on Essay

Compare and contrast at least Three theoretical perspectives on healthcare management and leadership - Essay Example Leadership seems to be a trending topic even in healthcare where better leadership is considered to be a significant factor in improving quality of healthcare and organizational processes (Hartley & Benington, 2010). The study compares and contrasts three leadership and management theories that include transformational theory, Shared leadership theory and situational theory because leadership theories are dynamic and change with time. Transformational leadership Transformational theory usually goes beyond traditional style of transactional leadership and elaborates that people work effectively if the individuals have a sense of mission. Healthcare systems experience various challenges and chaos as healthcare organizations increasingly face complex problems, which motivate organizations to embrace transformational leadership. Transformational leadership considers a leader to be an individual that is capable of enabling others to act and even converting the followers to become leaders who in turn can be agents of change (Roussel, 2013). This model influence arise from the power of being a leader although the leader never uses the power to control or even repress constituents but rather a transformational leader empowers the constituents to have vision regarding the organization. In transformational theory energy initiates and sustains activities that translate intentions into reality; hence, in this perspective leadership is not concerned with so much exercise of power but rather focuses on empowering others (Borkowski, 2009). However, this does not imply that leaders in this approach relinquish power but instead emphasizes reciprocity exchange between leaders and constituents. The approach links the purpose of the leader to that of the constituent, which results in collective purpose which empowers staff and activates critical thinking in the staff’s roles in an organization and develops commitment in staff an essential asset for any organization (Goodwin , 2013). Transformational leaders mobilize staff through focusing on the welfare of people in the work environment because leadership experts recommend styles that empowers and recognizes collaboration instead of competition (Roussel, 2013). When the working atmosphere is empowering, people get empowered and feel part of a team and consider themselves to be contributors to the success of an organization. In healthcare, empowerment may result in increased patient care, reduced staff sick days as well as reduced attrition. Transformational healthcare leaders tend to have a staff that has high job satisfaction and who remain in an organization for a prolonged period (WHO, 2008). However, for healthcare leaders who always want to be in charge, the method may make them feel threatened by sharing their power with the staff. Moreover, although effective leadership supports shared power, the leader accepts responsibility in decision making even when the decision made is unpopular. In this a pproach, constituents like their wishes to be considered; however, there are times like in a crisis when constituents require prompt and clear decisions from the leader and this is where situational theory comes in. Because of the flexibility of a transformational leader, a leader in this approach is able to adapt styles for

Sunday, November 17, 2019

English literature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

English literature - Essay Example Although Sci Fi may have a rendered a physical presence in our society, gothic fiction portrays social evils, educates us on our inner or hidden personalities, makes us realise about the dualities in our roles and educates us on our double standards. All that in a way that it entertains us as well (Ellis, 2001). One read on the book Dracula tell us about this character or breed of beings that live on human blood and are immortal. But the values behind this fiction are much more than that. Dracula represents the social evil in us of never ending greed, hunger and power. His immortality may be referred to as the dynamic economy society that may have transformed society us all into being slaves to the system (Watt, 2005). The same ideas that came from the book â€Å"1984†. The idea of â€Å"big brother watching. Dracula may be thirsty for blood only but it does portray how we all are made to sacrifice our lives for the good of someone else. Psychology, sociology and philosophy- all are integral pieces in gothic literature. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hide in Stevenson’s book are the two characters that teach us about us. How we have an inner self for greater glory and how we can accidentally or intentionally with limited knowledge do evil with the intentions of good. How science may have created more monsters for us in our lives than do more good. How we perceive ourselves to be Gods and seek immortality through our work. Stevenson’s work is not just about monsters and dark forces, but it explains values of society. It explains how we as human have our limitations as humans and what we have done to exceed those (Hogle, 2002). Gothic literature makes us learn of our inner selves. It makes us realize the animal instincts that guide us when we need to eat, sleep and mate. Since the topics of discussion in gothic literature are many a times metaphysical and explore our subconscious, the characters depicted in gothic literature are supernatural

Friday, November 15, 2019

The complex matrilineal social structure of spotted hyenas

The complex matrilineal social structure of spotted hyenas Amazons of the animal world: the complex matrilineal social structure of spotted hyenas. The spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta ¸ has evolved a matrilineal society in which the females are more dominant and aggressive than males within the clans. Female and male behaviors come together to form a complex societal structure that promotes variability and reproductive success. This species is an exceptional example of matrilineal hierarchy and social organization as opposed to the regular male-dominant societal structure present in the case of most mammals. Scientists continue to study the spotted hyena for its remarkably sophisticated social behavior, which may be comparable to that of some primates and possibly even human beings (Jenks et al., 1995; Drea et al., 2002; Engh et al., 2002; East et al., 2003). The spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, is a very intelligent animal that organizes itself into large clans of 50-80 members (Engh et al., 2002). While most mammals exhibit a male-dominant society where males fight for rank and the right to reproduce, the spotted hyena has developed a matrilineal society (Jenks et al., 1995). Females are more dominant and aggressive than males and pass on their rank to their offspring (Jenks et al., 1995; Engh et al., 2002). They are responsible for reproductive choice due to their dominant status (East et al., 2003). Males regularly travel to clans outside their natal society, despite the cost of access to food, for the chance of higher reproductive success (Engh et al., 2002). They also engage in specific favorable behaviors to entice females to choose to mate with them (East et al., 2003). All of these sophisticated behaviors have evolved to promote variability and overall success for the spotted hyena. Even more amazingly, the same social structure a nd behaviors of dominant-submissive interactions emerged within an isolated group of spotted hyenas raised in captivity (Jenks et al., 1995). The spotted hyena is definitely a very unique case of societal arrangement (Engh et al., 2002). With further study, the evolution of this remarkable case of sex-role reversal and complex hierarchy may soon be fully understood. It may provide further insight into similar social arrangements seen with other animals such as primates (Jenks et al., 1995). The study of spotted hyenas may even provide insight into more primitive stages of human societal structure, especially where there are matrilineal cultures. Females are without question the more dominant gender within spotted hyena clans and they exercise this dominance when it comes to reproduction (Engh et al., 2002; East et al., 2003). They are on average larger, more aggressive, and more violent than males within the clan (Engh et al., 2002). Their special anatomy an enlarged clitoris through which copulation occurs gives them full control over sexual activities and partners (East et al., 2003). There is no chance for forced copulation simply because the male hyena needs the females full cooperation for proper coitus to occur (East et al., 2003). Theories for the evolution of this physical characteristic include (a) counter-evolution in the presence of high rates of forced copulation and (b) selection for overall more dominant and aggressive individuals resulting in masculinization (Drea et al., 2002). Since more dominant and aggressive females also attain a higher rank within the clan, they tend to be more successful in raising a larger number of young. A higher rank correlates to greater access to food and thus higher chances of survival for both mother and offspring (Engh et al., 2002). Female spotted hyenas have multiple criteria for choosing mates. They prefer immigrant males to natal males, those born within the community a possible measure for prevention of inbreeding (Engh et al., 2002). Even more amazingly, females generally prefer males of similar age, preventing sexual interactions with fathers or sons (East et al., 20023). Females also show preference for more submissive, less aggressive males (East et al., 2003). This selection for less aggressive males further emphasizes the sexual dimorphism, both in behavior and physical characteristics, present in this species. Females copulate with several males when in heat, possibly to dissuade males from infanticide (East et al., 2003). This behavior further increases variability it is quite common to see single litters whose cubs can be traced to different fathers (Engh et al., 2002). It serves to confuse males and dissuade them from killing cubs that may or may not be their own a complex behavior that shows fo resight and intelligent thought (East et al., 2003). Female choice for less aggressive males and behavior to prevent infanticide may have evolved to counter the extremely high-risk pregnancies these animals go through due to their anatomy (Drea et al., 2002). In a study conducted by Engh and colleagues (2002), the reproductive skew among male hyenas was investigated. One of the major discoveries was that immigrant males had an immense advantage over natal males. Over the 10-year period that one clan of hyenas was observed, it was found that immigrant males sired 97% of the cubs, while natal males only sired 3% (Engh et al., 2002). This explains the males behavior of leaving natal clans and immigrating elsewhere: the cost of rank and access to food are highly outweighed by the reproductive benefits in a non-natal clan (Engh et al., 2002). Within the group of immigrant males, it was found that rank did not have a statistically significant effect on a males reproductive success. In fact, males a few ranks below the highest ranking immigrant had the most success in terms of cubs sired (Engh et al., 2002). In general, tenure the measure of how long an immigrant male had been in the clan was found to be a better indicator of reproductive succ ess. The immigrant males rates of producing cubs increased significantly the longer they remained in the clan, showing a strong correlation between tenure and reproductive success (Engh et al., 2002). Male spotted hyenas are also observed to exhibit behaviors to make themselves more attractive to females. As found in a recent study by East and colleagues (2003), there was no reproductive advantage to harassing, shadowing, or defending females from other competition. In fact, males exhibiting these behaviors were often attacked or chased away by females and other clan members. Instead, males found significantly more reproductive success by fostering relationships with females over longer periods of time a surprisingly complex behavior very close to that of humans (East et al., 2003). Having these friendly relationships also were seen to solidify the males places within the clan hierarchy once again, a very complex sociological behavior, especially when seen outside the order of primates (East et al., 2003). The sophisticated system of hierarchy was even recreated in captivity by a group of previously unranked hyenas collected at infancy (Jenks et al., 1995). Amazingly, these young hyenas grouped themselves in a matrilineal hierarchy, as observed over the course of two generations (Jenks et al., 1995). This structuring occurred despite the lack of maternal input for the first generation, showing that social organization is programmed into the spotted hyenas behavioral patterns (Jenks et al., 1995). While the first generation had little to no maternal interaction to help rank them within the clan, they went on to influence their own offsprings place in the clan hierarchy, just as observed in wild clans (Jenks et al., 1995). The only significant difference between the experimental clan and wild clans was the speed at which the cubs ranks stabilized within the community. Experimental group cubs solidified their place much faster than those in the wild, possibly due to smaller numbers and le ss movement within the clan (Jenks et al., 1995). The spotted hyena is a remarkable animal. It shows extremely complex behavior that leads to sophisticated social structure something that is rarely seen in mammals outside of primates (Jenks et al., 1995). In fact, the matrilineal group structure of hyena clans is very similar to that of Old World primates (Jenks et al., 1995). The sense of organization in this manner is so strong within the hyenas evolved behavioral patterns that matrilineal structure is even seen to spontaneously emerge in isolated hyenas raised in captivity (Jenks et al., 1995). Complex sexual behaviors, such as the females choice of partner based on immigrant status, tenure, and age, seem to promote the creation of this social structure (Engh et al., 2002; East et al., 2003). Carefully nurtured relationships between same- and opposite-sex individuals show the multifaceted interactions between clan members that also contribute to the development of matrilineal organization (East et al., 2003). Female dominance is even supported by biological mechanisms and the altered anatomy of this species (Drea et al., 2002). With further study, the circumstances that led to the evolution of this unique system may soon be uncovered. This will provide insight not only into the spotted hyenas sociological history, but also into that of Old World primates and possibly even that of human beings. It is an exciting prospect that will hopefully emerge within the years to come.